Physics of the Future

Another great read from Michio Kaku. I have read most of his books and he is a very talented author who can explain complicated things to the non-physicist. Although this book is not as complicated as some of his earlier releases he does have some interesting ideas about what the future will be like, what type of technology we will have in the future and how physics is shaping the way for all this to happen.

Some of the topics he discusses are: medicine, nanotechnology, space travel, energy and humanity itself. Most of his predictions are made from the fact that some sort of research is being dome in that topic right now.

I hope I am alive to see some of this technology come to life!

Physics of the Future: How Science Will Shape Human Destiny and Our Daily Lives by the Year 2100

Feynman

For those who have read some physics books in their life must have herd of Richard Feynman. We was a great physicist who works on quantum mechanics. This books gives a breif look at his accomplishments (even winning the nobel prize!) in physics and gives a little details of his character. Oh, did I mention it’s written as a comic?

I really enjoy reading books in the form of a comic. I find the visual element really helps understand what you are reading more. Of course not all books can be like this but there are more coming out in this form these days.

Get this book, it will give you a nice look into one of the great thinkers of the quantum revolution.

Feynman

Star Wars: Darth Bane Trilogy

After reading these books I no longer want to be a jedi knight, I would rather be a sith lord! The three books by Drew Karpyshyn were really good. They really take you inside the head of a powerful sith Darth Bane (Dex).

The main character of these books is a sith called Darth bane. The first book is a book mostly about how he became a sith and started to learn to channel the dark side and eventually destroying all the sith to leave only himeself and an apprentice: The rule or two! After training an apprentice he anxiously waits for his apprentice to challenge him for the title of sith lord, which is the true way of the sith and guarantees that the stronger sith survives.

These books take place in the old republic, a few thousand years after Reven and Malak. Very interesting books with a lot of cool fights and even sith sorcery!

Get these books if you are a follower of the dark side! I know I will be when I start playing SWTOR.

Path of Destruction

Rule of Two

Dynasty of Evil

Programming The Universe

This is the second time I have read this book. The first time was about 2 years ago and I thought it was interesting enough to read it again.

The author Seth Lloyd is a professor of mechanical engineering at MIT. He believes that we are all living inside a huge computer that makes of everything we see. Not a computer that we are use to but a quantum computer performing operations on elementary particles. Very interesting indeed.

I am truly fascinated with quantum computation and information. If you find this subject interesting also then pick up this book. It will open your eyes on another way to think about the universe.

Lloyd, a professor at MIT, works in the vanguard of research in quantum computing: using the quantum mechanical properties of atoms as a computer. He contends that the universe itself is one big quantum computer producing what we see around us, and ourselves, as it runs a cosmic program. According to Lloyd, once we understand the laws of physics completely, we will be able to use small-scale quantum computing to understand the universe completely as well. In his scenario, the universe is processing information. The second law of thermodynamics (disorder increases) is all about information, and Lloyd spends much of the book explaining how quantum processes convey information. The creation of the universe itself involved information processing: random fluctuations in the quantum foam, like a random number generator in a computer program, produced higher-density areas, then matter, stars, galaxies and life. Lloyd’s hypothesis bears important implications for the red-hot evolution–versus–intelligent design debate, since he argues that divine intervention isn’t necessary to produce complexity and life. Unfortunately, he rushes through what should be the climax of his argument. Nevertheless, Lloyd throws out many fascinating ideas.

Govinder Nazran Chess Set

I bought a new chess set a month ago and it finally arrived. This is not just a chess set but a hand crafted chess set by some french artist. it has so much detail in each piece and the board, it’s amazing!

So here are a few pics of my new piece of art:

My Brain Is Open: The Mathematical Journeys of Paul Erdos

I just finished this book and had to blog about it right away. For some reason I enjoy reading about famous physicist and mathematicians. The true reason I read this book is that I might be taking a discrete math course at Concordia University in the winter 2012 semester called: “Discrete Math of Paul Erdos”. So I wanted to read about this famous mathematician.

Paul Erdos was a very strange person even at a young age. He was also a calculating machine who loves number theory and even help invented some new fields of mathematics like Extremal graph theory and did some very interesting work on Random Graphs, Ramsey Theory and Combinatorics. Paul wrote more papers that any other mathematician and continously travelled the world. He also was very childish and his collaborators had to take care of him by letting him stay in his house. What money he did have he usually gave away to people who needed money for their education.

This book was very interesting. A great biography about a genius mathematician.

Star Wars: The Old Republic: Deceived

After reading Star Wars: The Old Republic: Fatal Alliance i read this on right away. This one was also very good. It’s the story about the destruction of the Jedi Temple. Jedi Masters and Sith Lords!

From the book:

The second novel set in the Old Republic era and based on the massively multiplayer online game Star Wars®: The Old Republic™ ramps up the action and brings readers face-to-face for the first time with a Sith warrior to rival the most sinister of the Order’s Dark Lords—Darth Malgus, the mysterious, masked Sith of the wildly popular “Deceived” and “Hope” game trailers.

Malgus brought down the Jedi Temple on Coruscant in a brutal assault that shocked the galaxy. But if war crowned him the darkest of Sith heroes, peace would transform him into something far more heinous—something Malgus would never want to be, but cannot stop, any more than he can stop the rogue Jedi fast approaching.

Her name is Aryn Leneer—and the lone Knight that Malgus cut down in the fierce battle for the Jedi Temple was her Master. And now she’s going to find out what happened to him, even if it means breaking every rule in the book.

I recommend it to anyone who likes star wars books.

Star Wars: The Old Republic: Fatal Alliance

I have read a bunch of star wars books in the past but never in the old republic era. I picked up this book because it had good ratings on amazon. It did not disappoint, a real page turner for any fan of star wars.

This story takes place in the old republic almost 4000 years before the movies take place. The story is about these robots called hexes who could possible take over the entire galaxy. If you watch stargate then the hexes will remind you of replicators. The main characters are a young male jedi, a young female sith and a mandalorian. There is also a jedi master. There is some really cool lightsaber fighting between the young jedi and sith.

From the book:

Well back in the days of the old republic, smuggler Jet Nebula discovers a treasure whose present and ultimate value he cannot even begin to estimate. He soon learns that it is valuable to enough different, well-armed parties to threaten not only the peace of the galaxy but also his own life expectancy. The Hutts want it to sell to the highest bidder—whether the crumbling republic or the rising empire, they don’t care. The Sith, all two of them, have their own plans. So does the Jedi high council, with more scruples but greater numbers behind them. A Mandalorian seems to see in the find a clue to a long-unsolved and quite dire crime, while a spy of indeterminate loyalties plays all sides at once, which hints strongly of knowledge of what the mystery object really is. This novel is tied in to the Star Wars universe at a stage in its history that is still being explored in print fiction, and it is also the prequel to what promises to be the largest, most ambitious electronic role-playing game yet to be spun off of that universe. With so much riding on its shoulders, the book demands an unusual gift for cracking good space opera, and that Williams possesses in full measure.

If you enjoy a good start wars story and can’t wait for the upcoming video game then read this book.

Sieve of Eratosthenes [python]

I have been teaching myself the awesome programming language python. So i rewrote the Sieve of Eratosthenes in python. The code is much shorter than the C++ implementation. Python is such a beautiful language python. Now if only I could use it at work instead of PHP, I would be one happy programmer.

import math

def eratosthenes(num):
print 'Constructing list with all values from 2 - ' + num

numbers = []
seen_numbers = []
start_num = 2

for i in range(start_num, int(num) + 1):
numbers.append(i)

stop_num = int(math.sqrt(float(num)))
print 'square root of ' + str(num) + '= ~' + str(stop_num)

for i in range(start_num, int(stop_num) + 1):
seen_numbers.append(i)

skip = 0
for sn in seen_numbers:
if i % sn == 0 and i != sn:
skip = 1
break

if skip:
print 'skip: ' + str(i)
continue

print 'deleting multiples of: ' + str(i)

for n in numbers:
if n != i and n % i == 0:
#print '\ndeleting: ' + str(n)
numbers.remove(n)

print 'all remaining numbers are prime\n'
print numbers

upper_bound = raw_input('Enter a number: ')
eratosthenes(upper_bound)

The Sum Of Consecutive Unique Primes

Last week i was thinking about prime numbers for some reason and I wondered if a given number that is the sum of consecutive unique primes has a unique solution. That is there is only one sequence of consecutive primes that make up the number. For example, 15 = 3 + 5 + 7. I quickly found a counter example in the number 41, which has 2 (or three solutions if you count itself).

41 = 2 + 3 + 5 + 7 + 11 + 13

41 = 11 + 13 + 17

And of course 41 is itself a prime.

So since i found a counter example this concluded the proof (or lack of a proof). Instead i decided to code an algorithm in C++ that did the following:

Description
Given a positive integer determine if this integer is the sum of consecutive primes. Output all the solutions. If no solutions are found output “No Solutions!”.

Example:
Input

41

Output

Successive primes that add up to 41

Solution: 1
2
3
5
7
11
13

Solution: 2
11
13
17

Solution: 3
41

Here is my implementation. First I create a vector of all the prime numbers less than the number inputted by the user. Then it would loop through all the primes in that list from the bottom up and sum them up until it equals the number inputted (a solution) or if greater than (no solution). It will loop through the array and prune the first element in the array each loop. Simple, easy, not very efficient because of the way we generate the list of primes.

#include <iostream>
#include <vector>
#include <math.h>
using namespace std;

vector<unsigned int> n;
vector<unsigned int>::iterator the_iterator = n.begin();

int sum_of_primes, solution_num;

/**
* This fucntion is used for making a vector of all the primes under
* a given number
*
* @param int num
*/
void eratosthenes(int num)
{
//cout << "Constructing vector will all values from 2 - " << num << "\n";

int i;
// fill in the vector with all the numbers under num
for (i = 2; i <= num; ++i)
n.push_back(i);

// we will stop at sqrt(num)
int stop_num = (int)sqrt(num);

// eliminate all com[posite numbers
for (i = 2; i <= stop_num; ++i) {
for (int k = 0; k < n.size(); ++k) {
if (n.at(k) != i && n.at(k) % i == 0) {
n.erase(n.begin() + k);
}
}
}
}

/**
* This function will find all the successive primes that add up
* to the number inputed byt he user.
*/
void findPrimeSums()
{
int i, sum;
int vector_size = n.size();
vector<unsigned int> primes;
vector<unsigned int>::iterator primes_iterator;

for (i = 0; i < vector_size; ++i) {
sum = 0;
primes.clear();

for (the_iterator = n.begin(); the_iterator <= n.end(); ++the_iterator ) {

primes.push_back(*the_iterator);

sum += *the_iterator;
if (sum == sum_of_primes) {
// we found successive primes that sums up to sum_of_primes
++solution_num;
cout << "\nSolution: " << solution_num << endl;

for (primes_iterator = primes.begin();
primes_iterator < primes.end();
++primes_iterator ) {
cout << *primes_iterator << endl;
}
break;
}
if (sum > sum_of_primes) {
break;
}
}

n.erase(n.begin());
}

if (solution_num < 1)
cout << "\nNo Solutions!" << endl;
}

int main (int argc, char * const argv[])
{
cout << "Enter the sum of primes: ";
cin >> sum_of_primes;

cout << "You entered: " << sum_of_primes << endl;

// create a list of all primes less than or equal to
eratosthenes(sum_of_primes);

cout << "Successive primes that add up to " << sum_of_primes << endl;

// is this number itself a prime?
findPrimeSums();

return 0;
}